Wednesday, July 29, 2009
Sub-division of Religious Texts
•3.8.1 Vedas - eternal , endless, exists by itself
Any sacrifice involves four priests, covering the four Vedas.
One who organizes the sacrifice is called Yajaman ( Master )
Branches Available Performed by Function Rishi vaisampayana
1. Rik Veda Hota praise of Devas & prayer
2. Sukla Yajur Veda Athvaryu rituals Vaisampayan
Krishna Yajur Veda Sama Udgata songs Jaimini
4. Atharvana Veda Brahma supervision Sumanthu
; -6 Veda- Angas- 6 ( Auxilliaries)
1. Siksha Pronounciation, Philosophy
2. Vyakarana Grammer
3. Chandas Metres 0f poetry
4. Jyothisha Astrology, Astronomy
5. Niruktha Dictionary, Glossary, Etymology
6.Methods of performing rituals
( 1 to 3 relate to the main text ; 4 to 6 relate to meaning of the Sutras )
4 Veda Upa Angas (sub-auxiliaries)
1. Meemamsa Theology, interpretation of texts.
2. Nyaaya Logic
3. Dharma Sastra Law of Conduct
4 Puranas Mythology
3.8.2 Other Vidyas
1. Aurveda - Medicine (Dhavanthri)
2. Dhanurveda- Archery ( Brugu )
3. Gandarva Veda-Music, Dance ( Bharatha)
4. Artha Sastra - Governance (Brihaspathi)
( 64kalas )
3.8.3 Sub-Division of Vedic Texts
1. Samhitha Main Texts of Mantras.
2. Brahmana Guide Book to conduct rituals a) vidhi, b) explanation etc
3.Aranyaka Text for recitation
4.Upanishads Philosophical ideas in form of Q & A between students and Rishis
known as Poorva /Karma Kandam
known as Uttara/Gyana/Brahma Kandam
80% relate to Karma (action),16% relate to Upasana (meditation),4% Gyan (knowledge)
Each mantra is associated with
1. Rishi who discovered it (symbolized by Head)
2. handas (Metre/Rhythm) ( Mouth)
3. Devas associated with it (Heart)
• Brahmana (Vidhi, Artha Vada)
meaning of mantras & benefits.
instructions on performance of rituals.
Topics covered in Brahmana
1. Itihasas History
2. Puranas Legends
3. Vidya Esoteric Knowledge
4. Upanishads Philosophy
5. Slokas Verses
6. Sutras Aphorisms
7. Vyakhyana Explanations.
8. Anu-Vyakhyana Elaborations
Upanishads speak about
1. Aihiki Yagyas (here only- benefits to be obtained in this life itself). Not permanent Rain, children, wealth, power, cattle etc.
2.Amunishmika Yagyas (here after- benefits to be obtained after life). Temporary Post of Indran, Swarga. Etc.
3. Moksha freedom from birth and death. Bliss.
Daso (10) Upanishads ( Veda Siras )
1 known as Poorva /Karma Kandam
2 known as Uttara/Gyana/Brahma Kandam
Upanishads relates to ** Veda
1. Isavasya Yajur
2. Kena Sama
3. Kata Yajur
4. Prasna Atharvana
5. Mundaka Atharvana
6. Mandukya Atharvana
7. Thaittiriya Yajur
8. Aitareya Rik
9. Chandogya Sama
10. Brihadaranyaka Yajur
• Smrithi or Dharma Sastras
Code of conduct for Individuals
The rules have been codified by
* these Smritis are in common use ( Epics )
Legends that happened during the life of the authors. Supreme manifested and lived as human, Playing a role model for mankind.
1. Ramayana - Sage Valmiki
2. Mahabharata - Sage Veda Vyasar. Narrated by Sage Vaisampayan to King Janamejayan
Ramayana consists of 24000 verses, was composed by Sage Valmiki, as revealed by Sage Narada.
Mahabharata was narrated by Sage Vyasar. His mental anguish was removed only after he compiled Bhagavata Purana, detailing the story of Krishna, on the advice of Narada.
Great dialogues which act as a guide to mankind appear in these
1. Srimad Bhagavad Gita Mahabharata Krishna to Arjuna
2. Vishnu Saharanamam Mahabharata Bhisma to Yudhistra
Five Lakshanas (Characteristics) of Purana
1. Sargam Creation of Universe & Cosmos.
2. Visargam Destruction
3. Vamsam Geneology of Gods and Rishis.
4. Manvantram Manvantaras ruled by Manus
Within the above, Puranas cover religion, customs, ceremonies, sacrifices, festivals, duties, Gifts/donations, details of temples, description of places of pilgrimage etc.
Ten Lakshanas (Characteristics) of Bhagavatam
1.Sargam Creation of Universe & Cosmos.
3 Sthan Protection of Earth by God
4.Poshan Protection of devotees
5.Creation of living beings according to Karma
6.Manvantaras Creation in Manvantaras and Dharma .
7.Ishanu Katha Avatars
8.Nirodh Pralaya and reabsorption of all creations inGOD
9.Mukti Realisation and merger with Supreme
10Asreya Merging with GOD through Sruti, Tatva and above 9 factors
Satvika Puranas *
1.Padma 55,000 Brahma Pulastya
2.Vishnu 23,000 Parasara
3.Bhagavat 18,000 Vyasa
4.Naradiya 25,000 Narada
5.Varaha 24,000 Varaha Bhu Devi
6.Garuda 19,000 (Garuda Kalpa)
Rajasa Puranas *
7.Brahma 10,000 Brahma Marichi
9.Bhavishya 14,500 (Aghora Kalpa)
10Brahma Vaivrata 18,000 Narayana Narada
11Vamana 10,000 (Siva Kalpa)
12Brahmanda 12,200 (future Kalpa)
Tamasa Puranas *
13.Siva 24,000 Sivan
14.Agni 16,000 Agni Vasishta
15.Linga 11,000 Siva (Agni Kalpa)
16.Skanda 81,100 (Tatpurusha Kalpa)
17.17,000 (Lakshmi Kalpa)
( * classification given in Uttara Kanda of Padma Purana )
Upa- Puranas - 18
13Saura (Aditya / Soorya )
Is an upa-anga (sub-division) of Vedas analysing the later in-depth. It has statements clarfying Doubts about the Vedic texts and is divided into two parts :
Karma /Poorva part covers the rituals stated in the Karma Kanda of Vedas
Brahma/Uttara part covers the knowledge about GOD stated in the Gyana Kanda of Vedas
Every Sastra has 3 components:
1. Sutra (aphorisms)
3. Bhasya (Commentaries)
Brahma Sutra relates to Brahma Mimamsa, clarifying doubts in the Brahma Kanda of Vedas. It Was authored by sage Veda Vyas ( also khown as Badarayana). Commentaries on it have been Written by the heads of all the three schools of Hindu religion viz. Adi Sankara, Ramuhaja and Madhvachariar. It contains 545 Sutras divided into 4 Chapters :
1. Brahman (Supreme) is sole cause of creation, sustenance and destruction.
2. Brahman is both material and instrumental causes.
3. Means of attaining Brahman.
4. Glory of salvation ( Moksha ).
Agamas deal with all aspests of temple worship, such as site selection,layout,architecture,design and construction of temple,design and construction of archa murthis (idols),installation and consecration,worship,festivals and processions etc. Temple rituals, following the Agamas, give purity of Mind (Chitta), Peace (Shanti) & Knowledge (Gyana) finally leading to Salvation (Moksha).
Alaya Swaroopa (rules for construction) covered in the Agamas
Vigraha Lakshana ( re Idols)
Pratistha Bhimba Lakshana
They originated as a result of the restoration of the Vedas, lost by Brahma,as outlined below:
Narayana Hamsa Avatar Brahma (Paushkaran) Asuras (Madhu & Kaitapan) Matsya Avatar taught ‘OM’ realised God & was snatched Vedas restored Vedas and taught Vedas
Hyagriva Brahma Kurma Avatar appearance of Paushkara
Veda upadesa creation,awaits archa taught Ashtakshari
Samhita - Form for worship
There are 28 Saiva, 64 Shakteya and 108 Vaisnava Agama sastras.
The Agama system (sidhanta) is explained in the 108 Samhitas, along with Mantra, Tantra and Tantrantra kriyas (activities). Three main Samhitas known as Ratna Treya are:
1. Ishwara (Satvata) 2. Parameshwara (Paushkara) 3. Padma (Jayakya)
( other important Samhitas are Ahirbudhya and Lakshmi Tantra )
The two main Vaishnava Agama systems are :
1. Pancharatra Agama : Srirangam, Kancheepuram, Melkote
Narrated by Sriman Narayana to 5 Rishis over 5 nights.
( Pancha – 5 )Methods for worshipping the 5 forms of God.
Unison of 5 entities viz. Brahman,Mukti,Yoga,Bhoga and Prapancham
2. Vaikanasa Agama : Tirupati
Narrated by Vaikanasa Rishi to other Rishis Pancharatra Agama System Vaikanasa Agni (Fire) Deity Sun (Surya) Aupagayana, Sandilya Rishis Marichi,Atri,Bhrigu,Kashyapa Bharadwaja, Kaushika & Maunjyayana *
Vedic & Tantrik Form of Mantra Vedic
ll after Samasana & Diksha Priests Only those born in Vaikhanasa Sutra,
Only householder (Grihasta)after Upanayanam Brahmachari,Grihasta and Vanprasta of any age
River banks/Mountains Place of temples Towns /Villages
Only Ashtanga type Prostration Panchanga type(5 limbs of body )
(8 limbs of body)
Dwaja Sthambam (Mast) Order of 4 places Bali Peetam
Bali Peetam Dwaja Sthambam
Garudan Sannithi Garudan Sannithi
Main Sanctum Main Sanctum
The 5 are incarnations (Amsas) of Anatan (Adiseshan), Garudan, Viswaksenar, Brahma and Indran respectively
Agama Sastra followed in the 108 Divya Desams :
1.Divine places (not accessible) 2
2.Tantra system 22 Nepal,Gujarat,U.P.,Kerala,Tamilnadu
3. No vaishnava rituals 2 located in Kamakshi Temple, Kanchi
4. Pancharatra system 43 Srirangam etc.
5. Vaikanasa system 39 Tirupati etc.
Archa Murthis ( Main Idols ) : 3 Postures (Reclining. Sitting and Standing). All three forms are found in the temples at Tirukkotiyur,Madurai, Uthiramerur,Parameswara Vinnagaram (Kanchi)
Idols) : Worship of Beras is considered best as compared to worship of God in water or Grass (Kurcha). There are different Beras for different purposes
1. Dhruv ( Moola - fixed )
3.Snapana (Tirtha – holy bath)
4.Karma (Kautuka- archan with flowers)
5.food offerings to ....)
Installation (Prathista) : procedures to infuse divine forces in the Idols (Murthis), Pedestal (Peetam), Vehicles (Vahana) and all other instruments for worship. Jaladiwasa Dhanyadiwasa Nethron-milona Snapana Sparshana (infuse divinity through mantras & touch) Ratnayaasa (Precious stones buried in cavity where the
pedestal for the Idol is to be constructed)
Transfer power from Balabimba to Kumbha to Idol
Nalyera Divya Prabandam ( 4000 Verses )
Verses sung in tamil, explaining the Supreme and ways to attain Him are known as the Dravida Veda. It originated with the saint Nammalwar and were lost after the era of alwars. Nathamuni rediscovered them after yogic penance. Arayar is the title of those who sing the verses.
It is elaborately sung during the Vaikunta Ekadasi festival in two phases :
1. 10 Days ( Pagal Pathu ), prior to the day of Ekadasi
2. 10 Nights ( Raa Pathu ), commencing from the Day of Ekadasi
The term Ubhayavedantacharya means one who is scholarly in both Sanskrit and Tamil Vedas.
In the Saiva system, elaborate verses have been composed by the 63 Nayanmars known as
Thevaram and Tiruvachakam. Odhuvars sing them in the temples.
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