Wednesday, October 7, 2009
SCIENCE OR YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE
SCIENCE OR YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE
KRISHNA-THE MASTER COUNCILER
Krishna takes the center stage from now on. As if speaking to Arjuna Krishna speaks to the World and explains the difference between Athma, Jeevathma and Paramathma, the birth and rebirth concept of human beings, soul and its characteristics.
In significant reference, he explains the difference between Body and Atma. The Science of knowledge also called Sankhya yoga starts with Arjuna’s faint-heartedness, the yoga of knowledge, the duty of Kshathriya to engage himself in fight, karma yoga or yoga of selfless action, the marks of the man of stable mind and his glories.
Krishna commands Arjuna:
Yield not to unmanliness, Arjuna: it does not behold you. Shake off this paltry faint-heartedness and stand up (2-3)
Arjuna! You grieve over those who should not be grieved for and yet speak like learned: wise men do not sorrow over the dead or the living (2-11)
In fact, there was never a time when I was not or when you or these kings were not. Nor is it a fact hereafter we shall cease to be (2-12)
Just as boyhood, youth and old age are attributed to the soul through this body; even so, it attains another body. The wise man does not get deluded about this (2-13)
The contacts between the senses and their objects, which give rise to the feelings of heat and cold, pleasure and pain, are transitory and fleeting-ignore them (2-14)
Unreal has no existence and the real never ceases to be: the seers of truth (2-16) have perceived the reality of both
Know that alone to be perishable, which pervades this universe: for no one has power to destroy this indestructible substance (2-17)
He who knows the soul to be capable of killing and he who takes it as killed- both are ignorant-for verily the soul neither kills nor is killed. (2-19)
The soul is never born nor dies; nor does it become only after being born, for it is unborn, eternal, everlasting and ancient; even though the body is slain; the soul is not (2-20)
As a man shedding worn-out garments, takes other new ones, likewise the embodied soul casting off worn-out bodies, enters into others which are new (2-22)
Weapon cannot cut it nor can fire burn it; water cannot wet it nor wind dry it (2-23)
The soul is eternal, omnipresent, immovable, constant and everlasting (2-24
This soul is unman fest; it is unthinkable; and it is spoken of as immutable (2-25)
Death is certain for the born and rebirth is certain for the dead-this is inevitable (2-27)
This soul dwelling in the bodies of all can never be slain; therefore mourn not (2-30)
Happy are the kshathriyas who get such an opportunity for war, which opens the door to heaven (2-32)
If you refuse to fight this righteous war, then, shirking your duty and losing your reputation will incur sin (2-33)
Consequences in not fighting:
If you refuse to fight this righteous war, then, shirking your duty and losing your reputation, you will incur sin (2-33)
Nay, people will also pour undying infamy on you. (2-34)
Die and you will win heaven; conquer, and you enjoy sovereignty of earth; therefore, stand up, determined to fight (2-37)
Treating alike victory and defeat, gain or loss, pleasure and pain- get ready for the fight, then fighting thus, you will not incur sin. (2-38)
All the above and attitude of mind has been presented to you from the point of view of Jhana yoga.
KARMA YOGA: (YOGA OF SELFLESS ACTION)
Equipped with the Jhana yoga or science of knowledge, you will be able to throw off completely the shackles of Karma (2-39)
In this disinterested action, there is no loss of effort; nor is there fear of contrary result, even a little practice of this discipline saves one from the terrible fear of birth and death (2-40)
In this yoga, the intellect is determinate and directed towards one ideal other wise it will wander aimlessly (2-41)
Vedas deal with three gunas-1) worldly enjoyments and the means of attaining them, 2) indifferent to these enjoyments and means) raising above of wants, 3) absolutely unconcerned about the supply of wants and the preservation of what has been already attained and self controlled (2-45)
Your right is to work only, but never to the fruit thereof. Be not instrumental in making your actions bear fruit, not let your attachment to inaction (2-47)
Perform your duties established in yoga, renouncing attachment, and even-tempered in success and failure; evenness of temper is called yoga (2-48)
Endowed with equanimity, one sheds in this life both good and evil. Therefore, strive for the practice of this yoga of equanimity. Skill in action lies in the practice of this yoga (2-50)
Wise men possessing an equipoise mind, renouncing the fruit of actions and freed from shackles of birth attain the Supreme blissful state (2-51)
When intellect, confused by hearing conflicting statements, will rest, steady and undistracted on God-then he attains the yoga-lasting union with God (2-53)
A Stable mind is the one that dismisses all cravings of mind, satisfied in the self through the self (2-55)
Take the case of a sage- he is unperturbed amid joys and sorrows and free from all passions, fear and anger-he has stable mind (2-56)
He is unattached to everything and meeting the good and evil with equal composure, neither rejoices nor recoils. (2-57)
Sense objects turn away from him so also tastes (2-59)
Having controlled them all and keeping the mind stable sit on meditation, devoting his heart and soul to Me (2-61)
Arjuna! Know- from anger arises infatuation, from infatuation confusion of memory, from confusion of memory loss of reason and from loss of reason one goes to complete ruin (2-63)
He who has not controlled his mind and senses cannot see reason, cannot see or think of God, and can have no peace and happiness (2-66)
As the waters of different rivers enter the ocean which though full on all sides remain undisturbed, likewise he in whom all enjoyment merge themselves attain peace; not he hankers after such enjoyment (2-70)
He who has given up all desires, and moves free from attachment, egoism and thirst for enjoyment attain peace (2-71)
Arjuna! Such is the state of the God-realized soul; having reached this state, he overcomes delusion. In addition, at this state he attains the supreme bliss (2-72)
In this chapter Lord Krishna in an assertive way emphatically declared that knowledge is superior and he who control the senses and unaffected by sorrows and joys and keep his mind stable ultimately reaches to the Supreme Being.
He gives various steps to control the senses.
Sankhyayoga or the yoga of knowledge is meant for all of us and it is not exclusively for Sanyasi. People in Grahsthasram can also follow this yoga. Many people think that this is hardest form of meditation. In the succeeding chapters, Lord Krishna offers various alternatives for us.
Elders think this is the finest exposition by the Lord to the humanity.
Bhagavan place before us many options to choose to obtain salvation. Sankhya Yoga is the first option. He clearly set our mind in a righteous path and the ultimate calamity we will face if we choose the wrong path.
A wrong mind is best described:
Sinful mental actions
Coveting the property thinking what is Adherence to evil
others undesirable doctrines
/ / /
Evil verbal actions wicked bodily action
/ / / / /
Speaking Attacking Carrying talking
Untruth others by tales against ill of /
Abusive others others -------------
Language taking what injuring illicit
is not givenl iving ntercourse
The above description is true to all times and for all races and all nationals-, it is universal.
A question may be asked- Is it possible to every one to observe the Sankhya yoga. It is possible and in this century itself many eminent people have lived like this-Mahatma Gandhi, Rajaji, Kamaraj, Lal Bhahadur Sastri, Tilak, Gokale, Vinobha Bhave and others in the past and Poundarikapuram Swami, Chinmayananda, Kanchi Periyaval, Anantharama dikshathar, Subramanya Barati and others from recent times.
From my book opportunities Un- limited many common people have lived and are living such a life.
For those who cannot live like this Bhagavan Shows other ways which we will see in other chapters.